Atlanta: Darker Than Blue

November 2015

a curated journey through Atlanta's history

In association with Hamilton Multimedia

Photography courtesy of the Kenan Research Center at the Atlanta History Center

Georgia State University Library & the Atlanta Journal-Constitution

 



Of Atlanta

Introduction by Khalfani Lawson

 

Legend has it that tucked away at the very end of the Appalachian trail in Northwestern Georgia is a city baptized in traditions of love, aspiration, industry, and determination. Formerly Terminus, followed by Thrasherville, and later to be named as we now know her, ­Atlanta. The city of a hundred hills, that is far too busy to hate. Should one aspire, they too can find refuge here among transplants and natives. 

Photograph by Lane Brothers Commercial Photography. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Atlanta and its aims throughout its history has been, and for the foreseeable future will be, inextricably tied to the aims and practices of the Republic, as Baldwin would name it, bound to change at any given time to answer the question of the times.

For example: When the nation needed a southern hub of industry, the Georgia General Assembly deemed her so. When the economy of the Southern States, which relied heavily on the free labor of enslaved Africans, was threatened a General of the Confederate States ­ Sherman, namely ­ decided that the Union could not have her in all of her glory, and much like a jealous lover he gave her up for good and she was burned to the ground. When Grady decided that she would be risen from the ashes as the capital of the “New South,” it was made true. 

These are written in history, plastered throughout the city in plaques, reverberated in rhetoric, and we find them increasingly proclaimed to be true, taught to every schoolchild as the highlights of our history from James Oglethorpe to Governor Deal. All of this is to say that Atlanta is a child of the South (despite the liberal proclivities within the Metro area) and as such is also a child of the Republic. As both inheritor and participant in the history of our nation there is one grand tradition that Atlanta is, and has been, a participant in: Development at the expense of the “other.” 


Photograph by Charles Pugh. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Charles Pugh. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Ken Patterson. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Ken Patterson. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

File photograph. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

File photograph. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Dennis Stock (1964) via Magnum Photos

Photograph by Dennis Stock (1964) via Magnum Photos

Photograph by Lane Brothers Commercial Photography. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Lane Brothers Commercial Photography. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Danny Lyon (1964) via Magnum Photos

Photograph by Danny Lyon (1964) via Magnum Photos


Expense in the Atlantan sense, rather, the price to be paid, historically has meant for the Negro in Atlanta the death of othered person's sense of reality. This may appear as a grandiose statement, but one need not look any further than the rich, complicated, history of the Negro in Atlanta to find such a statement to be reasonable. When the increasingly free Black population began to take part in the political life of the city during reconstruction, they were met with the ugly face of the Jim Crow “New South,” as Grady would have it, disenfranchisement that would later erupt into the race riot of 1906. Black bodies took part in integration, aesthetically at the very least, which was later met with the blockbusting that would lead to the very development of neighborhoods such as Sweet Auburn, Kirkwood, East Lake, Cascade Heights, Inman Park, Southwest Atlanta, and others by people of Color. 


Photograph by Joe McTyre. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Joe McTyre. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Gilmer Paschal in Paschal's Restaurant. Photograph by Andy Sharp. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Gilmer Paschal in Paschal's Restaurant. Photograph by Andy Sharp. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.


The irony of the self­imposed exile of white flight of the mid 20th century is the 21st century reorientation, we will call it, of the areas that were left. These formerly Black areas, once bustling centers of life, have been systematically unraveled and underdeveloped into graveyards, a shell of their former selves. One need not look any further than the newly renovated bungalow of East Atlanta Village or the Atlantic Station retail district now in the place of Home Park for proof of this. 

These places, though rich with life and new Atlantan promise are only so on the surface for at their core is a tradition of the death, denial, of Black presence in the city of Atlanta. Justice in a substantive way is, has been, fleeting. As fleeting perhaps as a sense of safety and security for oppressed persons of color. With every political figurehead in a brown body comes a promise of a new day, followed by the traditions of old. This perpetual cycle is rooted in a great number of issues to be unpacked, however within the history of Atlanta there are concrete examples in which the death of Black bodies, Black promise, find themselves to be imperiled. 


Photograph by Louie Favorite Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Louie Favorite Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.


Photograph by Nancy Mangiafico. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Nancy Mangiafico. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

 

 

 

The coverage and the aftermath of the murder of 28 Black bodies in a two­ year span, mostly children and young adults, made clear to the Republic and those within it that poor Black life in Atlanta was in danger in tangible ways. By the time a massacre was taking place it became clear that Atlanta had been failing her citizens far beforehand economically, politically, and socially.  

As we discuss the 21st century question the importance of Black life,the point in which Black life is of significance in this country, and the like, let us wrestle with this question: What has the motto of the city of a hundred hills, resurgens - to rise again - a return to vitality and new life mean for the disinherited? I offer that here, in Atlanta, there has yet to be the moment of vitality we seek, and it remains clear that there is a long road to be walked and a hefty price to be paid for new life. 



Ebenezer Baptist Church


 

Founded in 1886 by Pastor John Andrew Parker, a freedman, Ebenezer Baptist Church of Atlanta had only 13 members and no church building upon Parker’s passing in 1894 and when Alfred Daniel Williams became its second pastor.  Williams’ powerful sermons and strong leadership skills increased the number of congregants to 750 by 1913.

Inspired by a life-long desire to preach the word of God and a conversion experience, Williams’ devotion to purpose enabled him to secure a lot on the corner of Auburn Avenue and Jackson Street in Atlanta and raise $25,000 for a building that included an auditorium and gallery that could seat 1,250 people.

The church broke ground for the new building in March 1914.  Upon Pastor Williams passing in 1931, Reverend Martin Luther King, Sr., husband of Alberta, Pastor Williams’ daughter, assumed the mantle of leadership at Ebenezer. Pastor King led the church while his wife, Alberta Williams King, directed the music ministry. Their son, Martin, Jr., grew up in this nurturing Christian environment. He preached his first sermon at the church in 1948, when he was 19 and was ordained a minister soon thereafter. Some of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr’s most durable sermons were delivered at Ebenezer, among them ‘‘The Three Dimensions of a Complete Life,’’ ‘‘What Is Man?’’ and ‘‘Loving Your Enemies.’’

Excerpt from The Black Past: Ebenezer Baptist Church, Atlanta, Georgia


Photograph by Alyssa Noel

Photograph by Alyssa Noel

Photograph by Alyssa Noel

Photograph by Alyssa Noel


Auburn Avenue (Sweet Auburn)


Photograph by Nick Arroyo. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Nick Arroyo. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

 

 

 

 

Extending less than two miles eastward from Peachtree Street, Auburn Avenue was the commercial, cultural, and spiritual center of African American life in Atlanta prior to the civil rights movement. "Sweet Auburn" boasted a concentration of black-owned businesses, entertainment venues, and churches that was unrivaled elsewhere in the South. 

As restrictive Jim Crow legislation was codified into law, the city's African American population became confined to the area between downtown and Atlanta University and to neighborhood on the city's easy side, known today as the Old Fourth Ward. It was during this period that Auburn Avenue first achieved prominence as a commercial corridor and became home to the city's emerging black middle class.

Excerpt from New Georgia Encyclopedia: Auburn Avenue (Sweet Auburn)


Photograph by Lanna Swindler. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Lanna Swindler. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Customers at Silver Moon. Photograph by Nick Arroyo. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Customers at Silver Moon. Photograph by Nick Arroyo. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Nick Arroyo. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Nick Arroyo. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.


In 1956, Fortune magazine memorably described Auburn Avenue as "the richest Negro street in the world."

Excerpt from New Georgia Encyclopedia: Auburn Avenue (Sweet Auburn)

 


Photograph by Nick Arroyo. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Nick Arroyo. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

 

Blvck Vrchives (an extension of Sunday Kinfolk) In association with Hamilton Multimedia Music by Curtis Mayfield, We the People Who Are Darker Than Blue (1970) Photographs courtesy of the Kenan Research Center through the Atlanta History Center, Georgia State University Library & the Atlanta Journal-Constitution


 

Photography by Constantine Manos (1968) via Magnum Photos


Reverend Martin Luther King Sr.,Photograph by Cornell Capa (1968) via Magnum Photos

Reverend Martin Luther King Sr.,Photograph by Cornell Capa (1968) via Magnum Photos

Leaving church after the funeral of Martin Luther King, Jr. Coretta Scott King, Alberta Williams King, King's mother, and Christine Farras, King's sister. Photograph by Bob Fitch.

Leaving church after the funeral of Martin Luther King, Jr. Coretta Scott King, Alberta Williams King, King's mother, and Christine Farras, King's sister. Photograph by Bob Fitch.


 

Unbought & Unbossed


Campaigning for Shirley Chisholm, Summerhill. Photograph by Boyd Lewis. Boyd Lewis Collection. Courtesy of the Kenan Research Center at the Atlanta History Center.

Campaigning for Shirley Chisholm, Summerhill. Photograph by Boyd Lewis. Boyd Lewis Collection. Courtesy of the Kenan Research Center at the Atlanta History Center.


Shirley Chisholm, the first African-American woman elected to Congress, sought the Democratic nomination in 1972 as the first black woman to run for president. When the congresswoman from New York launched her spirited campaign, she took on the political establishment. Chisholm said she ran for the office, despite the hopeless odds, to challenge the status quo.

In her announcement speech, Chisholm said:

Excerpt from NPR: The First Black Woman to Run for President


Shirley Chisholm photographed by Irving Penn, Vogue, May 1, 1969 

Shirley Chisholm photographed by Irving Penn, Vogue, May 1, 1969 


"I am not the candidate of black America, although I am black and proud. I am not the candidate of the women's movement of this country, although I am a woman and I am equally proud of that. I am the candidate of the people, and my presence before you now symbolizes a new era in American political history."

Excerpt from NPR: The First Black Woman to Run for President


Chisholm accepted an invitation to join the faculty at Mount Holyoke, the United States' oldest women's college, where she taught courses in political science and women's studies until 1987.

She was also a visiting professor at Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia. At one commencement address she urged new graduates to be active citizens: 

"Ask questions and demand answers. Do not just tend your garden, collect your paycheck, bolt the door, and deplore what you see on television. Too many people are doing that already. Instead, you must live in the mainstream of your time and of your generation."

Excerpt from Encyclopedia: Shirley Chisholm Facts

 

A Shooting in a Sanctuary 


On Sunday June 30th 1974, Alberta Christine Williams King played "The Lord's Prayer" on the organ at Ebenezer Baptist Church. The song finished, and most of the congregation had their eyes closed and heads bowed in preparation for prayer when they heard a shout:



"I'm taking over here!"



Ebenezer Baptist Church, Atlanta History Center (1975)

Ebenezer Baptist Church, Atlanta History Center (1975)

 

 

 

They looked up to see a young black man standing on a pew near the front of the church. He jumped down, bolted to the pulpit, faced the choir, and pulled out a gun. The man, Marcus Wayne Chenault Jr. fired every round in his gun, hitting Alberta King, church deacon, Edward Boykin, and congregation member Jimmie Mitchell. As the gunman sprinted out the side door leading to Jackson street, the sanctuary was chaotic. There were people everywhere. There was a throng of onlookers. When I looked in their eyes I saw what is often described as "the thousand-yard stare." It was a kind of blankness I'd never seen before. They were bewildered and in shock. Many were crying; most had their hands pressed to their mouths in disbelief.

Excerpt from Atlanta Magazine: The Murder of Alberta King


That Sunday was "without question the worst day of my life," wrote Farris. Her brother Martin had been assassinated in Memphis six years earlier, her brother A.D. drowned a year after that. "I thought I had made it through the worst days of my life. I was wrong."

Excerpt from Atlanta Magazine: The Murder of Alberta King



Marcus Wayne Chenault Jr. died on Saturday at a hospital in the Atlanta suburb of Riverdale. He was 44. Chenault was serving a life sentence at the state prison in Jackson, Ga., when he suffered a stroke on Aug. 3. He never regained consciousness, a hospital spokeswoman said. Within weeks of the slaying, Mr. Chenault was tried, convicted and sentenced to die in the electric chair. He said he had acted out of hatred for Christianity and because his god has told him to. His lawyers said he was insane. 

Excerpt from NY Times: Obituaries, M.W. Chenault, 44, Gunmen Who Killed Mother of Dr. King (August 22nd, 1995)




Black Life & Public Housing


Techwood Homes Family Patrol. Photograph byGeorge A. Clark (1984) Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Techwood Homes Family Patrol. Photograph byGeorge A. Clark (1984) Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

 

 

For decades, social commentators have called Atlanta’s impoverished public housing projects incubators for crime. Around the time the city began its revitalization efforts by demolishing its many subsidized residences, it was reported that one in five reported violent crimes in Atlanta took place in public housing projects.

Created to eliminate slum-like conditions and house many of the city’s poor residents, Atlanta’s Techwood Homes were the first and oldest housing project built in the U.S., opening in 1936. By the 90s, the violent crime rate at the Techwood Homes stood at 37 times the national average. As a result of Hope VI efforts, the homes were demolished prior to the 1996 Olympic games.

Excerpt from NY Times: Atlanta Makes Way for New Public Housing

 


Photograph by Cheryl Bray. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Cheryl Bray. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Cheryl Bray. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Cheryl Bray. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Cheryl Bray. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Cheryl Bray. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Cheryl Bray. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Cheryl Bray. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Keith Hadley. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Keith Hadley. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Louie Favorite. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Louie Favorite. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by John Spink. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by John Spink. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by W.A. Bridges. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by W.A. Bridges. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Keith Bradley. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Keith Bradley. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph courtesy of the Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph courtesy of the Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

    Photograph by George Clark. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

    Photograph by George Clark. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Renee Hannans Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Renee Hannans Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Joey Ivansco Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Joey Ivansco Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Louie Favorite. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Louie Favorite. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Calvin Cruce Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Calvin Cruce Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Louie Favorite. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Louie Favorite. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Steve Deal Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Steve Deal Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Tom Coffin Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Tom Coffin Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Lanna Swindler. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Lanna Swindler. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Lanna Swindler. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Lanna Swindler. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Phil Mayer. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Phil Mayer. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Ray West Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Ray West Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Louie Favorite Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Louie Favorite Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Rick Mahan. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Rick Mahan. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

File photograph. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

File photograph. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Frank Niemier. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Frank Niemier. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Louie Favorite. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Louie Favorite. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Johnny Crawford Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Johnny Crawford Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Jean Shifrin. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Jean Shifrin. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Walter Stricklin. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Walter Stricklin. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Renee Hannans. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Renee Hannans. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by W.A. Bridges. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by W.A. Bridges. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Walter Stricklin. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Walter Stricklin. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.



Bowen Homes Daycare Explosion 

 

Monday, October 13th, 1980, an explosion tore through a day care center where 90 pre-schoolers were playing, killing four children and an adult. Authorities said the blast at the one story brick building may have stemmed from a faulty boiler. "It was so quick," said Melinda Cole, a teacher at the center. "All I could think was, 'Get to the door. Get out, children, get out.' I got all 12 of mine out - safe and accounted for." The victims were identified as Andre Stanford, Ronald Brown, Kelvin Snelson, and Terrence Bradley, all 3-year old boys. Authorities said 58-year old Nell Robinson, a teacher at the center was also killed in the blast.

Excerpt from Star News: Explosion rips daycare center


Two neighbors offer their support to a grief stricken woman. Photograph courtesy of the Atlanta Journal Constitution. 

Two neighbors offer their support to a grief stricken woman. Photograph courtesy of the Atlanta Journal Constitution. 


Mayor Maynard Jackson said "The only evidence we have at this time is that this was an accident. We are not certain what caused this, but it looks like it could have been an explosion in the furnace."

Excerpt from Star News: Explosion rips daycare center


Photograph by Bill Mahan. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Bill Mahan. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

School books and debris from the Bowen Homes Explosion. Photograph by Jerome McClendon (1980) Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

School books and debris from the Bowen Homes Explosion. Photograph by Jerome McClendon (1980) Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Jerome McClendon. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Jerome McClendon. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.


One man in the crowd shouted back: "It was the Ku Klux Klan." About 487 children attending an elementary school across the street from the blast scene were evacuated after a bomb threat was telephoned to the school later in the day. No bomb was found and the children were allowed to return to class. 

Excerpt from Star News: Explosion rips daycare center

 
Tina and Lanecia walk past security guard at the blast site. Photograph by Steve Helber (1980) Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Tina and Lanecia walk past security guard at the blast site. Photograph by Steve Helber (1980) Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.


Atlanta Child Murders


 

 

The time when the missing and murdered children ordeal was taking place was a very emotional time for black kids growing up in the Atlanta city limits, because the fear of getting abducted and becoming a slaying victim was running through the veins of black children like an abnormal heart beat. 

According to the records, in 1979 every black male who was between the age of nine and twenty-seven years old who lived in the city of Atlanta or the greater Decatur area extreme city limits, or who were visiting the city limits from out of town, were subject to fall victim as prey to the hunter or hunters lurking and roaming the streets, playgrounds, and shopping center plazas to hunt and attack their next victim.

These horrific crimes in 1980 sent the Atlanta area into lockdown mode after dark for all kids up to eighteen years old, with a strict enforced curfew that  started at 7:00pm.

Excerpt from Living Among Monsters: Growing Up During the Missing and Murdered Children by Darrin Griffith

 

Photograph by Joe Benton (1981) Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Joe Benton (1981) Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

"Save Our Children March" Photograph by W.A. Bridges (1980) Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

"Save Our Children March" Photograph by W.A. Bridges (1980) Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Kenneth Walker (1980) Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Kenneth Walker (1980) Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Police composite sketch of a possible witness in one of the child abductions. Photograph by Billy Downs (1981) Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Police composite sketch of a possible witness in one of the child abductions. Photograph by Billy Downs (1981) Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.


Between 1979-1981, two of the murdered victims were female, and all of the victims came from low-income neighborhood, or government assisted projects of single-family homes. All murdered victims were black, and a lot of Atlanta residents in the black community accused the city administration and top police authors in 1980 for not taking the murders of poor black children seriously when black youth bodies started showing up around the city. Atlanta black residents in 1981 felt had the murdered victims been white children, or black middle-class children, something would have been done about this senseless crime after the second murdered occurred. 

Excerpt from Living Among Monsters: Growing Up During the Missing and Murdered Children by Darrin Griffith


Father of murder victim Patrick Baltzar at the funeral service. Photograph by George Clark (1981) Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Father of murder victim Patrick Baltzar at the funeral service. Photograph by George Clark (1981) Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.


The black community accused the police department of treating poor black people with contempt, and tempers were starting to boil.

Excerpt from Living Among Monsters: Growing Up During the Missing and Murdered Children by Darrin Griffith


Helen Pue, mother of murdered Terry Pue helped into her apartment by police. Photograph by George Clark (1981) Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Helen Pue, mother of murdered Terry Pue helped into her apartment by police. Photograph by George Clark (1981) Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Funeral service for Curtis Walker. Photograph by Bill Mahan (1981) Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library. 

Funeral service for Curtis Walker. Photograph by Bill Mahan (1981) Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library. 


On May 22, 1981, around 2:52 a.m, police heard a loud splash in the Chattahoochee River. A car sped across the bridge, turned around in a parking lot on the other side, and sped back across the bridge. The vehicle was pursued and stopped. The driver was a 23-year old African American freelance photographer named Wayne Williams.

Excerpt from FBI Stories: Serial Killers, Part 5: Wayne Williams and the Atlanta Child Murders


Jurors on the Wayne Williams trial see the bridge location of the suspected body dumping site. Photograph by Dwight Ross (1982) Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Jurors on the Wayne Williams trial see the bridge location of the suspected body dumping site. Photograph by Dwight Ross (1982) Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.


Lacking probable cause, authorities let Williams go. But when the body of a young African-American man named Nathaniel Carter was found downstream two days later, more attention was paid to Williams. Investigators soon learned that his alibi was poor and that he had been arrested earlier that year for impersonating a police office. Later, he failed multiple polygraph examinations.

Williams was arrested on June 21st, 1981, and convicted of two murders. Following the trial, the law enforcement task force concluded that there was enough evidence to link Williams to another 20 of the 29 deaths and was sentenced to life in prison.

Excerpt from FBI Stories: Serial Killers, Part 5: Wayne Williams and the Atlanta Child Murders


Photograph by Boyd Lewis. Boyd Lewis Collection. Courtesy of the Kenan Research Center at the Atlanta History Center.

Photograph by Boyd Lewis. Boyd Lewis Collection. Courtesy of the Kenan Research Center at the Atlanta History Center.

NAACP meeting to discuss missing and murdered children at Wheat Street Baptist Church. Photograph by Louie Favorite (1980) Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

NAACP meeting to discuss missing and murdered children at Wheat Street Baptist Church. Photograph by Louie Favorite (1980) Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Mother and baby at NAACP meeting to discuss the missing and murdered children. Photograph by Louie Favorite (1980) Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Mother and baby at NAACP meeting to discuss the missing and murdered children. Photograph by Louie Favorite (1980) Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Captain J.L. Sparks at his desk. Photograph by Dwight Ross (1981) Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Captain J.L. Sparks at his desk. Photograph by Dwight Ross (1981) Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Wayne Williams after impromptu talk with press. Photograph by Kenneth Walker (1981) Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Wayne Williams after impromptu talk with press. Photograph by Kenneth Walker (1981) Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.


After the trial, doubts were raised about his guilt, and many consider the case of the missing children unsolved. 


Crowds of people waiting to see Wayne Williams trial. Photograph by W. A. Bridges (1982) Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Crowds of people waiting to see Wayne Williams trial. Photograph by W. A. Bridges (1982) Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

 Photograph by W. A. Bridges (1982) Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

 Photograph by W. A. Bridges (1982) Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.


James Baldwin on the Atlanta Murders


Baldwin was summoned from his Paris expatriotism in early 1981 by Chicago`s Walter Lowe Jr., an articles editor at Playboy, to report on what was then still called the ``Atlanta missing children case.`` Baldwin reluctantly accepted the assignment. Lowe and Baldwin visited Atlanta in two three-week trips, writing and editing as the story continued to unfold. It apparently turned out to be even more emotionally taxing than Baldwin had feared. Lowe watched him break down in tears at one of the murder scenes. His anguished magazine prose poked holes in the pristine image of the "New South." Three years later, many questions remain. Were the leaders of the city that calls itself ``too busy to hate`` merely using Williams as a scapegoat to put a lid on their growing embarrassment? Seventeen of the victims` parents filed a lawsuit charging that Atlanta city officials failed to follow up leads, ignored or suppressed evidence and tried to ``establish a pattern to make all cases fit a mold.``

Excerpt from Chicago Tribune: Black Anger in Atlanta, James Baldwin Looks At 'Things Not Seen'


Photograph by Boyd Lewis. Boyd Lewis Collection. Courtesy of the Kenan Research Center at the Atlanta History Center.

Photograph by Boyd Lewis. Boyd Lewis Collection. Courtesy of the Kenan Research Center at the Atlanta History Center.


Reward money being offered for information. Photograph by George Clark (1980) Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Reward money being offered for information. Photograph by George Clark (1980) Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

 

 

 

 

The only pattern Baldwin can discern between the victims, who included males, females, children and adults, is that they were young, black and poor, perhaps too poor to count for very much with the power elite that was responsible for bringing their killer--or killers--to justice in that black-run Southern bonanzaland.

Baldwin implies something far more insidious, describing "the Black Mayor" as "interim caretaker of a valuable chunk of real estate" until the power overlords who run the state and the nation decide to reclaim it. He is not just talking about Atlanta`s black mayor here. He is talking about all black mayors. 

Excerpt from Chicago Tribune: Black Anger in Atlanta, James Baldwin Looks At 'Things Not Seen'


"Lord. The New South. Do not come down here looking for it." 

Excerpt from Chicago Tribune: Black Anger in Atlanta, James Baldwin Looks At 'Things Not Seen'

 


Missing child press conference for Lubie Geter. Photograph by Billy Downs (1981) Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library. 

Missing child press conference for Lubie Geter. Photograph by Billy Downs (1981) Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library. 


Victims Mothers March in Remembrance of all of the Missing and Murdered Children. Photograph by W.A. Bridges (1984) Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Victims Mothers March in Remembrance of all of the Missing and Murdered Children. Photograph by W.A. Bridges (1984) Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.


There is far too much sermonizing here on the overall state of race relations in America and not enough digging into specific facts of the Atlanta murders. Nonetheless, when Mr. Baldwin steps down from the pulpit he can still bring passionate intensity to reportage, especially in an assessment of Wayne Williams, the failed music promoter whose 1982 conviction for two murders closed the Atlanta case. Mr. Baldwin derides the controversial fiber evidence that allegedly connected two victims with Mr. Williams's home in what the author terms ''an untidy trial,'' and he judges the verdict dubious.

But he acknowledges the defendant's freaky behavior during the trial. ''I am thankful not to have been on that jury,'' he writes. ''Someone described Wayne Williams's karma - for which I read aura - as terrifying. I would have described it as vindictive: somebody, as the old Sly and the Family Stone hit puts it, you'd just to love to burn.''

Excerpt from NY Times: Books, Evidence of Things Not Seen



Those Bones Are Not My Child


From the very beginning, the Atlanta missing- and murdered-children cases of the early 1980s had the sinister ring of a Grimm's fairy tale. For some reason, especially for African-Americans, the narrative carried more weight than did most of the sordid and pitiful bad newsof the day; it resonated with biblical parallels and brought up uncomfortable echoes of the middle passage. To this day "the terror," as it was known to many, remains more in the realm of legend than history.

"Those Bones Are Not My Child," Toni Cade Bambara's posthumous novel, is not so much an answer to that enigma as it is an exploration of the world in which these deeds occurred, and of the emotional devastation visited upon the families affected. Bambara took extraordinary pains in researching, documenting, compiling, analyzing and ultimately digesting the vast cache of information surrounding the murders. In her acknowledgments she writes: 

Excerpt from Chicago Tribune: Toni Cade Bambara's Posthumous Novel Is a Wise, Tough and Knowledgeable Look at the World of the Atlanta Child Murder (Edited by Toni Morrison)


Photograph by Bud Skinner Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Bud Skinner Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Steve Deal Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Steve Deal Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.


"Research need not be running around in an effort to apprehend information. It can sometimes be accomplished by being still and comprehending."

Excerpt from Chicago Tribune: Toni Cade Bambara's Posthumous Novel Is a Wise, Tough and Knowledgeable Look at the World of the Atlanta Child Murder (Edited by Toni Morrison)


Photograph by W.A. Bridges.  Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by W.A. Bridges.  Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.


 
 
Spelman College. Photograph by Eli Reed (1993) via Magnum Photos

Spelman College. Photograph by Eli Reed (1993) via Magnum Photos

Spelman College. Photograph by Eli Reed (1993) via Magnum Photos

Spelman College. Photograph by Eli Reed (1993) via Magnum Photos

Morehouse College Marching Band

Morehouse College Marching Band

Morehouse College Marching Band

Morehouse College Marching Band

 

Freaknik: Atlanta's Street Party

Visit the Blvck Vrchives narrative: Freaknik


Photograph by Marlene Karas Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Marlene Karas Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by The Sanity Inspector

Photograph by Alex Webb

Photograph by The Sanity Inspector.

Photograph by Johnny Crawford. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Johnny Crawford. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Johnny Crawford. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Curtis Compton. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Curtis Compton. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Curtis Compton. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.



Gentrification and Olympics


Protestors outside Olympics Chief Billy Payne's House. File photograph from the Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Protestors outside Olympics Chief Billy Payne's House. File photograph from the Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

 

Like a magician’s smoke and mirror show, city elites planned a comprehensive urban renewal program behind the sparkle of the 1996 Olympic Games bid, including the first wave of public housing destruction. Techwood and Clark Howell Homes were partially razed to make way for Centennial Olympic Park and athlete dormitories; in other areas of the city strategically sought HUD grants and infusions of private funding knocked down nine large projects and replaced them with “public-private partnership” complexes. Major developers lent funds to this battering ram process and more and more areas of the city were opened up to gentrification.

Mass relocation of public housing tenants takes away not only geographically neutral affordable housing, but often access to transportation and other necessities. Migration patterns in the metro Atlanta area show ongoing gentrification of intown neighborhoods that shoves poor, Black residents to commuter suburbs with virtually non-existent public infrastructure.

Excerpt from Solidarity: A Political Eulogy for Atlanta's Public Housing


Photograph by Phillip McCollum. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Phillip McCollum. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Kimberly Smith. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Kimberly Smith. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Johnny Crawford Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Johnny Crawford Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.


Public housing also reflects the "feminization of poverty."

Excerpt from Solidarity: A Political Eulogy for Atlanta's Public Housing


Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Ron Bell. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Ron Bell. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.


A pre-relocation survey of public housing residents in Atlanta found that over 95% of leaseholders in family units (as opposed to elderly units) were African American women. Most reported short tenures with AHA, having been driven there due to poverty wages or family breakups. Meanwhile, zero-tolerance, "one strike" codes provided the stick: forced eviction of tenants at the first criminal offense in their unit - even if the crime was committed by a family member or guest. Communities remaining in public housing were gradually dissolved.

Excerpt from Solidarity: A Political Eulogy for Atlanta's Public Housing


Photograph by Curtis Louie Favorite. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Curtis Louie Favorite. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.


Following the post-Olympic High

 


 

"Little B" is the street name of the pensive boy on the book jacket, Michael Lewis. Born in the Bluff, Atlanta's most neglected and derelict inner-city neighborhood, he can hardly be said to have been "raised" there.

Father unknown, mother a victim to drugs, young Michael (a nominal but forgotten ward of the state of Georgia) survived in the Bluff, homeless and school-less from age 11 to 13. During that year, 1997, this boy's luck changed. He experienced his first arrest and was tried, convicted and sentenced as an adult for the murder of Darryl Woods, "a working black man, a husband and a father." The state finally put a roof over Michael's head: the Georgia State Prison in Alto, which he entered as the youngest of 1,200 incarcerated felons. He is there today--visited when possible by Elaine Brown, the author of "The Condemnation of Little B," and his little sister Ta-ta. He's 18 years old now and still waiting for justice.

Excerpt from Atlanta Journal-Constitution (2003)


Photograph by Nona Boyd Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Nona Boyd Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Henrietta Spearman. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Henrietta Spearman. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

File photograph. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

File photograph. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by W.A. Bridges. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by W.A. Bridges. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

File Photograph Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

File Photograph Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Cheryl Bray. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Cheryl Bray. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Ray West. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Ray West. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by John Spink. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by John Spink. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Tom Coffin. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Tom Coffin. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Tom Coffin. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Tom Coffin. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Tom Coffin. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Tom Coffin. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Tom Coffin. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Tom Coffin. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Tom Coffin. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

Photograph by Tom Coffin. Atlanta Journal-Constitution Photographic Archives. Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library.

 
Photograph by Boyd Lewis. Boyd Lewis Collection. Courtesy of the Kenan Research Center at the Atlanta History Center.

Photograph by Boyd Lewis. Boyd Lewis Collection. Courtesy of the Kenan Research Center at the Atlanta History Center.

Photograph by Boyd Lewis. Boyd Lewis Collection. Courtesy of the Kenan Research Center at the Atlanta History Center.

Photograph by Boyd Lewis. Boyd Lewis Collection. Courtesy of the Kenan Research Center at the Atlanta History Center.

Photograph by Boyd Lewis. Boyd Lewis Collection. Courtesy of the Kenan Research Center at the Atlanta History Center.

Photograph by Boyd Lewis. Boyd Lewis Collection. Courtesy of the Kenan Research Center at the Atlanta History Center.

Photograph by Boyd Lewis. Boyd Lewis Collection. Courtesy of the Kenan Research Center at the Atlanta History Center.

Photograph by Boyd Lewis. Boyd Lewis Collection. Courtesy of the Kenan Research Center at the Atlanta History Center.

Photograph by Boyd Lewis. Boyd Lewis Collection. Courtesy of the Kenan Research Center at the Atlanta History Center.

Photograph by Boyd Lewis. Boyd Lewis Collection. Courtesy of the Kenan Research Center at the Atlanta History Center.

Photograph by Boyd Lewis. Boyd Lewis Collection. Courtesy of the Kenan Research Center at the Atlanta History Center.

Photograph by Boyd Lewis. Boyd Lewis Collection. Courtesy of the Kenan Research Center at the Atlanta History Center.

Photograph by Thomas Hoepker via Magnum Photos

Photograph by Thomas Hoepker via Magnum Photos